What you need to know about peptic ulcer disease

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A peptic ulcer is an open sore of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by mucosal damage secondary to pepsin and gastric acid secretion. The two most common types of peptic ulcers are gastric ulcers, located in the stomach, and duodenal ulcers, found in the proximal duodenum,

                                                              causes of peptic ulcers

The most common causes of peptic ulcer disease are infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)such as aspirin or ibuprofen . According to American Academy of Family Physicians(AAFP), H. pylori bacteria adhere to the gastric mucosa and result in increased gastrin levels, mucus production, and mucosal bicarbonate secretion, all of which favor ulcer formation. NSAIDs cause submucosal erosions and inhibit the formation of protective prostaglandins. Other factors that can increase the risk for ulcers include older age and family history of peptic ulcers. Tobacco and alcohol use are also risk factors. 

                                                    symptoms of peptic ulcers

 Epigastric pain is the most common symptom of peptic ulcer, but other possible manifestations include dyspepsia, heartburn,Black, tarry, or bloody stools (which means the ulcer is bleeding) and chest discomfort
                                                    management of peptic ulcers

proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine receptor blockers (H2 antagonists) are two treatments commonly used for peptic ulcers. The PPIs, like Protonix (pantoprazole), Nexium (esomeprazole), and Prevacid (lansoprazole) and the H2 antagonists, such as Zantac (ranitidine) and Pepcid (famotidine), all work by reducing stomach acid production. Additionally, cytoprotective agents, like Carafate (sucralfate),Bimuth subsalicylates and Cytotec (misoprostol), are used to protect the lining of the stomach and small intestine from acid to decrease the formation of ulcers

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