Monday, April 26, 2021

The unforeseen effects of sanitizers and disinfectants on soil microbes during disease outbreak

While the world is busy exploring the ability of sanitizers and other chemicals to stops what we so call bugs (bacteria and viruses) from spreading, we forget the effect of those chemicals on our environment. Specifically soil which has been serious brutalized by millions of gallons of chemicals, blame not to gravitation force that pull everything to the soil but to human being who has failed to put measures to protect what will feed him tomorrow. Starting with we should know what sanitizer is:
spraying disinfectants in China
In Bozhou, China, in a photo from February, workers spray disinfectant to protect against the novel coronavirus.
STR/AFP via Getty Images 

What is sanitizer?

Sanitizer is a substance or fluid designed to kill germs on skin and objects. This is the simple definition you will get from most of the online dictionaries although on my side the definition is not clear enough and base only on one side (good side). Although this chemical was designed to kill bad microbes it doesn’t mean it will spare life of the good ones, meaning that whatever bacteria (harmful or harmless) will suffer the same consequence accordingly.

What is the importance of soil microbes?

Microbes play very huge and essential role when it comes to soil productivity. These are some of advantages of soil microbes as well explained by SESL AUSTRALIA.
·         Breaks down organic matter
·         Recycle nutrients
·         Create humus
·         Create soil structure
·         Nitrogen fixation
·         Promote plant growth

Are soil microbes affected by the use of sanitizer and disinfectants?

The clear answer is yes, especially when there is extensive usage of those chemicals and their improper (or poor) disposal like what is happening during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many people dispose their used chemicals to the environment with or without knowing its effect to the beneficial microbes (including soil microbes), also some authority have used high tech machines to spray disinfectants to the environment where by large percentage of those disinfectants will end up in soil.

How can we reduce the effect to the soil microbes?

What I think two things must be done, first of all is to educate the society about the effect of those chemicals to the environment and second to provide them with the alternative way of destroying/disposing their chemicals.
I would like to hear from you, don’t forget to leave a word in the comment box below.

Thursday, April 15, 2021

Top ten Most lethal antibiotic resistant bacteria (reviewed and updated)


Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

The global problem of antibiotic resistance is fast becoming one of the major scientific issues of modern times. The development of new antibiotics is slow and difficult work but bacterial resistance is decreasing our arsenal of existing drugs posing a catastrophic threat as ordinary infections become untreatable. Some scientists have come up with a solution of using bacteriophages against these superbugs although the technology is still in a developmental stages while having several constraints and doubts. It has been reported that bacteriophages can transfer resistance genes (ARGs) from one bacteria to the other (read here)
The bacteria listed below cover a range of diseases and levels of resistance. All of them present a threat to humans in some way or another. Some, like tuberculosis for example, are already a huge challenge to overcome in their own right and will only become harder to control as their resistance to antibiotics grows.
10. STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES
First Documented: 1884
Illness Caused: Sore throat, skin disorders
Antibiotic Resistance: Low
Virulence: Deadly
Like other potentially dangerous bacteria such as E.coliStreptococcus pyogenes can be found in 5 per cent - 15 per cent of all humans, residing in the lungs or throat without causing any harm. Streptococcus pyogenes causes over 700 million infections globally every year and has a high mortality rate of 25 per cent in serious cases - once you have an infection the bacteria can cause a range of diseases ranging from sore throat and impetigo up to scarlet fever. Luckily, the bacteria is affected by penicillin so is treated easily in most cases - however several strains are building resistance to various other antibiotics.

9. NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE

First Documented: 1885
Illness Caused: Gonorrhoea
Antibiotic Resistance: Medium
Virulence: Worrying
Gonorrhoea is spread through sexual contact and causes various infections in both men and women. Certain strains of the bacteria have shown resistance to antibiotics and have mutated over the course of 50 years or so, slowly adapting different resistances as doctors change their approach by using different antibiotics to counter the disease. The small hairs or ‘pili’ on the bacteria act like hooks that are used to move the cell and attach it to other healthy cells. Using the pili the cell can exert a force 100,000 times its weight(link is external)
!

8. MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS

First Documented: 1882
Illness Caused: Tuberculosis
Antibiotic Resistance: Medium
Virulence: Deadly
Tuberculosis has been know by many names including scrofula and the White Plague and has been a huge cause of death and distraction throughout history, with evidence found in bodies estimated to be around 9,000 years old. It is believed that Nefertiti and her Pharaoh husband Akhenaten both died from tuberculosis in around 1330 BC, and documents remain from ancient Egypt that talk of the dangers of the disease. While instances of the disease reduced to only 5,000 a year in the UK in 1987, the increase in antibiotic resistance has seen a rise in cases in the early 90s.

7. ACINETOBACTER BAUMANNII

First Documented: 1911
Illness Caused: Pneumonia, Meningitis, Urinary Tract Infection
Antibiotic Resistance: High
Virulence: Worrying
Acinetobacter baumannii have become resistant to many antibiotics and like other bacteria are currently being countered most effectively through thorough hygiene in healthcare situations. The bacteria can survive in harsh conditions for long periods of time so are often difficult to deal with in weaker patients, and coupled with increasing resistance presents a tough challenge when encountered by doctors. Sometimes called IraqibacterAcinetobacter baumanniibecame very prevalent during the Iraq war amongst injured soldiers who passed through several different medical facilities.

6. ESCHERICHIA COLI (E.COLI)

First Documented: 1895
Illness Caused: Diarrhoea, Urinary Tract Infection, Meningitis
Antibiotic Resistance: High
Virulence: Worrying
Most E.coli is completely harmless and survives happily in the human digestive system. However, some strains of E.coli can cause serious illness and most commonly lead to severe food poisoning as well as meningitis and infections. A high level of resistance to antibiotics has been found across several strains of E.coli and while it is rare to find these strains causing illness, it is another concerning example of a bacteria that has the potential to cause problems if our use of antibiotics goes unchecked.

5. KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE

First Documented: 1886
Illness Caused: Lung infections, Pneumonia
Antibiotic Resistance: Medium
Virulence: Worrying
Klebsiella pneumoniae can cause a range of infections and has proven to be very resistance to a range of antibiotics. Primarily affecting middle-aged and older men with weakened immune systems, this bacteria can be dangerous but is mostly ‘opportunistic’ and is far less likely to affect healthy adults. Due to its high levels of resistance, it is common in the US to perform tests to identify which strain is present in a patient to better inform doctors of how to treat them. This is slowing the rate at which resistance is built up but this bacteria is still of concern across the globe.

4. CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE

First Documented: 1935
Illness Caused: Diarrhoea
Antibiotic Resistance: Low
Virulence: Dangerous
One of the better known ‘superbugs’ because of a consistent presence in hospitals around the world, C.difficile is, primarily, an easily spread type of diarrhoea that can lead to complications in the colon. Several significant outbreaks of C.difficile have made the news in the UK
(link is external)
 and despite a major effort in improving hygiene in hospitals, the bacteria is responsible for a significant number of deaths globally. The chance of catching C. Difficile is actually increased by exposure to antibiotics
(link is external)
 - you are more likely to get ill from C.difficile if your internal balance has been upset and the bacteria can exploit this.

3. PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA

First Documented: 1872
Illness Caused: Pneumonia, Various Infections
Antibiotic Resistance: Medium
Virulence: Worrying
Quick to mutate and adapt to counter different antibiotic treatments, Pseudomonas aeruginosa shows an innate ability to develop resistance to antibiotics. Described as ‘opportunistic’ because it primarily affects humans that are already critically ill, this bacteria can cause serious complications in the treatment of AIDS, cancer or cystic fibrosis patients. While it isn’t a massive threat to humanity currently, this bacteria will become an increasing threat over the next few years.

2. BURKHOLDERIA CEPACIA

First Documented: 1949
Illness Caused: Pneumonia
Antibiotic Resistance: Low
Virulence: Worrying
Discovered in 1949 as the bacterium that causes onions to rot, Burkholderia cepacia can be very dangerous to humans in the worst cases. While it mostly responds well to treatment with a combination of antibiotics, it has been shown to have high levels of resistance to several types of antibiotics and is able to survive in extreme conditions. Particularly dangerous to humans with preexisting lung conditions such as Cystic Fibrosis
(link is external)
, scientists have been developing new ways to fight the bacteria as it evolves an increasing resistance to antibiotics.

1. STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA)

First Documented: 1884
Illness Caused: Pneumonia, Flesh Eating Disease
Antibiotic Resistance: Medium
Virulence: Dangerous
More commonly known as MRSA (which stands for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), this ‘superbug’ is very easily spread through human contact and can cause a range of illnesses from skin disorders to deadly diseases like meningitis and pneumonia. Most often treated with Penicillin type antibiotics, by 1960, 80 per cent of hospital samples were antibiotic resistant. A concerted effort in tracking the disease and improving hygiene measures in hospitals has seen cases of MRSA fall by 84.7 per cent in the UK between 2003 and 2011(link is external), proving that prevention is often the best form of defence against bacteria.
Do you think there is a bacterium that was forgotten? please leave your comment below.

Tuesday, April 13, 2021

How often should a man release seeds?

Image result for semen releasedFor most men, ejaculating is synonymous with having an orgasm, although some men can have an orgasm without ejaculating.
Ejaculate contains fluid from the prostate, seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral glands. Though it contains a wide variety of substances, including citric acid, cholesterol, mucus, and water, its primary job is to deliver sperm.
Research shows that the frequency with which a man ejaculates may affect his health, sperm count, and overall well-being.
While no evidence says that not ejaculating causes serious health problems, frequent ejaculation may reduce a man’s risk of prostate cancer. Having satisfying sex with a partner may also improve a man’s health.
This article looks at how often a man should release sperm, whether there is a link between ejaculation and cancer, and the effects of ejaculation on the body.

What is normal?

two men kissing on a bed and wondering How often should a man release spermShare on Pinterest
Age, health, and relationship status can all affect ejaculation frequency.
Many men may wonder whether their sexual behavior is normal. They may fear that they are not having as much sex as their peers, or that they are masturbating too frequently.
The truth is that there is no “normal” number of times a man should ejaculate. Average ejaculation frequency varies according to many factors, including a man’s:
  • age
  • health
  • relationship status
According to the 2015 Sexual Exploration in America Study, partnered sex — and the ejaculation that usually accompanies it — is most frequent among men ages 25–29, with 68.9% reporting vaginal intercourse during the last month. The figure drops slightly to 63.2%, among men in their 30s, and declines with each decade of advancing age.
Research published in the Journal of Sexual Medicine found that masturbation was common across a man’s lifespan. Men of all age groups reported masturbation in the past month. Solo masturbation was more common than partnered sex during adolescence and in those about 70. Partnered masturbation was highest among men ages 30–39.

What is safe?

No guidelines state the ideal frequency with which a man should ejaculate, whether on his own or with a partner. Myths exist about the dangers of regular masturbation. However, according to Planned Parenthood, there is no evidence that frequent masturbation is harmful.
Likewise, most people do not consider frequent consensual sex with a partner to be harmful to either party as long as both partners:
  • feel comfortable in their actions
  • avoid sexual activities that cause pain
  • adopt safer sex strategies
2015 study found that men who ejaculated daily over 14 days experienced slight decreases in the number of sperm in their ejaculate. However, the reduction did not cause sperm count to fall below normal thresholds. Also, frequent ejaculation did not affect other measures of sperm health, such as sperm motility and morphology.
Research published in the journal Social Psychological and Personality Science found that partners who have sex at least weekly report being happier with their relationships. More frequent sex did not increase relationship satisfaction, but it also did not cause it to decline.

Is there a cancer link?

Men who ejaculate frequently may have a lower risk of prostate cancer, according to a 2016 study that followed men for nearly 2 decades.
Researchers found that men ages 40–49 that ejaculated more frequently had a lower risk of prostate cancer. Men with the lowest risk ejaculated at least 21 times per month.
The study did not establish that ejaculation could prevent cancer in younger men. The researchers remain unsure whether frequent ejaculation fights prostate or any other cancer in men under 40.
There is no evidence that frequent ejaculation is harmful to younger men.

Effects on the body

a happy couple having a spoon in bed. Share on Pinterest
Regular sexual activity may improve mood and relieve stress.
Ejaculation may offer numerous health benefits. Ejaculation from partnered sex may be particularly beneficial because:
  • Sex is a form of exercise. Exercise reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, obesitydiabetes, and many other health problems.
  • Sex may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Research that followed men with erectile dysfunction found that those who had sex less than once a month were more likely to develop heart disease.
  • Sex may relieve stress and improve mood.
  • Having sex at least once per week may improve the immune system.
  • Ejaculation may offer pain relief for chronic pain and the pain associated with several conditions.
Many men also find that ejaculation, whether alone or with a partner, helps them sleep.
Men who worry about sperm production should know that the body continually produces sperm. Frequent ejaculation will not cause the body to run out. Although it takes the average sperm about 74 days to fully mature, the body makes millions of sperm each day.
Men with healthy, normal sperm counts should not worry about the effects of regular ejaculation. Those with a low or marginal sperm count should discuss ejaculation frequency with a knowledgeable doctor or reproductive endocrinologist.
YOU MAY ALSO LIKE: Male infertility and you

Summary

Most research suggests that frequent ejaculation offers several health benefits. There is no evidence that regular ejaculation causes any health issues. More frequent ejaculation may mean a man gains more health benefits.
The positive benefits of ejaculation do not mean that all men must ejaculate frequently. Men who prefer to avoid sex, asexual men, men for whom ejaculation is painful, and many other men may find that the discomfort of ejaculation outweighs any benefits.
Men who only want to have sex with a partner may limit their ejaculation because of relationship problems, fatigue or because their partner does not want to have sex.
Ultimately, there is no right number of times a man should ejaculate. While frequent ejaculation may offer several health benefits, no evidence proves that never or infrequently ejaculating causes specific health issues.